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Địa chất và Tài nguyên Việt Nam

Viet Nam has been endowed with a diversified geology and rich Earth resources though its area is not so large. On the territory of Viet Nam, including its mainland, seas and islands, geological formations and Earth resources have arisen from countless geological events, over billions of years.

INTRODUCTION

Viet Nam has been endowed with a diversified geology and rich Earth resources though its area is not so large. On the territory of Viet Nam, including its mainland, seas and islands, geological formations and Earth resources have arisen from countless geological events, over billions of years.

Research into Viet Nams geology was first conducted by French geologists at the end of the nineteenth century. From 1945 onwards, especially since 1954, studies and basic surveys on the geology and Earth resources of Viet Nam have been carried out by Vietnamese geoscientists from the former General Department of Geology under the Ministry of Industry, now the General Department of Geology and Minerals of Viet Nam under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, as well as geoscientists of the Ministry of Sciences and Technology, the Ministry of Education and Training, the Vietnamese Academy of Sciences and Technology, the Viet Nam National Oil and Gas Group (PetroVietnam), the Viet Nam Coal and Minerals Industries Group (VINACOMIN), the Viet Nam National Committee for IGCP (International Geoscience Programme) and the Viet Nam Union of Geological Sciences among others. These include geological mapping and mineral surveys at different scales from 1:1,000,000 to 1:50,000, thematic studies, exploration and reserve assessment, with accumulation of many valuable data, with the help of geologists from the former Soviet Union, China and East-European countries in the early stage and in collaboration with geologists from France, Japan, the Republic of Korea and other countries in recent years. In the mean time, surveys, prospecting, exploration and exploitation of Earth resources have been extended to the entire country, creating the basis for the development of many new types of mineral, energy and groundwater resources, significantly contributing to national development.

Although geological survey, resources investigation, exploration and exploitation activities have been conducted for over 60 years, only geological and mineral resource maps, papers and thematic works have been published so far. A general monograph on the geology and resources of Viet Nam is long overdue, however, to mark the results of the last stage of study and provide knowledge for further stages.

With the above aims, qualified and experienced Vietnamese geologists, under the editorship of Prof. Dr. Tran Van Tri and Prof. Dr. Vu Khuc have joined together to compile this inventory on the geology and Earth resources of the country, by combining existing works with new theories in modern geological concepts. This work also aims to serve as an explanatory note to the 1:1,000,000 scale Geological Map of Viet Nam as a contribution to the compilation of the 1:5,000,000 scale Geological Map of Asia led by the Commission for the Geological Map of the World. It is also a contribution of Vietnamese geologists to the International Year of Planet Earth, as set forth by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) with the motto “Earth Science for Society”.

The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of Viet Nam hereby highly appreciates the contribution of Vietnamese geologists and sincerely thanks relevant organizations for their support in making this publication possible.

I have the honour to present the work “Geology and Earth Resources of Viet Nam” to our readers.

 

NGUYEN MINH QUANG

Minister of Natural Resources and Environment

 

 

MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT

GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AND MINERALS OF VIỆT NAM

 

 

 

 

 

 

GEOLOGY AND
EARTH RESOURCES

OF VIỆT NAM

 

 

 

 

 

Authors: Trần Văn Trị and Vũ Khúc (Editors), Bùi Minh Tâm, Cù Minh Hoàng, Đặng Trần Huyên, Đoàn Nhật Trưởng, Đỗ Bạt, Lê Đỗ Bình, Lê Đức An, Mai Trọng Nhuận, Ngô Quang Toàn, Ngô Thường San, Nguyễn Bá Minh, Nguyễn Biểu, Nguyễn Địch Dỹ, Nguyễn Hữu Tý, Nguyễn Quang Hưng, Nguyễn Thành Vạn, Nguyễn Tuấn Phong, Nguyễn Văn Quý, Nguyễn Văn Vượng, Nguyễn Xuân Bao, Phạm Đức Lương, Phạm Kim Ngân, Phan Thiện, Phan Trọng Trịnh, Tạ Hòa Phương, Trần Ngọc Nam, Trần Tân Văn, Trần Tất Thắng, Trần Thanh Hải, Trần Trọng Hòa, Trần Tuấn Anh, Trịnh Văn Long and Võ Công Nghiệp.

Collaborators: Bùi Học, Bùi Phú Mỹ, Cát Nguyên Hùng, Đàm Ngọc, Đào Đình Thục, Đỗ Cảnh Dương, Lê Duy Bách, Lê Văn Đệ, Nguyễn Đình Hữu, Nguyễn Đình Uy, Nguyễn Hiệp, Nguyễn Hoàng, Nguyễn Hữu Hùng, Nguyễn Khắc Vinh, Nguyễn Linh Ngọc, Nguyễn Như Trung, Nguyễn Thị Bích Thủy, Nguyễn Trọng Tín, Nguyễn Văn Can, Nguyễn Văn Hoành, Nguyễn Văn Thuấn, Nguyễn Xuân Khiển, Nguyễn Xuân Tùng, Phạm Bình, Phạm Huy Thông, Phạm Thị Dung, Phan Cự Tiến, Phan Trường Thị, Phùng Văn Phách, Thái Quý Lâm, Trần Đình Sâm, Trần Hữu Dần, Trần Nghi, Trần Văn Miến, Trần Xuân Hường, Trịnh Xuân Bền and Trịnh Xuân Hòa.

 

 

 

 

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Printing 1.000 copies, 19×27 cm at the Science and Technology Printing house joint stock Company. Permission of the KHXB No 3822/CXB-QLXB on 17/11/2011
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CONTENTS


 

INTRODUCTION NGUYỄN MINH QUANG

FOREWORD TRẦN VĂN TRỊ, VŨ KHÚC............. 1

PART I. OUTLINE OF LANDSCAPE AND GEOLOGY              7

Chapter 1. History of the study of geology and Earth resources of Việt Nam NGUYỄN XUÂN BAO, NGUYỄN THÀNH VẠN.............................................................................. 9

Chapter 2. Physiography and geomor-phology LÊ ĐỨC AN    17

I. Geographic features of Việt Nam...........

1. Geographic position ...... ...........................

2. Topography.............................................

3. Climate ..................................................

4. Continental hydrology...............................

5. Marine hydrology ...................................

6. Pedology ................................................

7. Organisms ..............................................

II. Zoning of physical geography of Việt Nam            

III. Geomorphological characteris-tics of the Vietnamese territory   

1. Geomorphology of the mainland ...............

2. Topography of islands and archipela-goes .

3. Geomorphology of the sea floor ...............

PART II. STRATIGRAPHY................................... 35

Chapter 1. Meso-Neoarchean Super-sequence       

1. Hoàng Liên Sơn Terrane TRẦN TẤT THẮNG......

Chapter 2. Paleoproterozoic-Middle Neoproterozoic Supersequence         38

1. Hoàng Liên Sơn Terrane TRẦN TẤT THẮNG......

2. Phu Hoạt-Nậm Sư Lư Terrane TRẦN TẤT THẮNG         

3. Kon Tum Terrane TRỊNH VĂN LONG ........

Chapter 3. Upper Neoproterozoic- Silurian Supersequence

I. Upper Neoproterozoic-Lower Cambrian Sequence 

1. Việt Bắc Basin PHẠM KIM NGÂN..............

2. W Bắc Bộ Basin Group PHẠM KIM NGÂN..

3. Việt-Laos Basin Group TRẦN VĂN TRỊ.......

4. S Việt Nam Basin Group TRỊNH VĂN LONG......

II. Middle Cambrian-Lower Ordovi-cian Sequence PHẠM KIM NGÂN, TRẦN VĂN TRỊ     

1. Northeast Bắc Bộ Basin..........................

2. Việt Bắc Basin........................................

3. West Bắc Bộ Basin.................................

4. Việt-Laos Basin Group............................

III. Middle Ordovician-Wenlock Sequence PHẠM KIM NGÂN  

1. Northeast Bắc Bộ Basin..........................

2. West Bắc Bộ Basin.................................

3. Việt-Laos Basin Group............................

IV. Ludlow-Pridoli Sequence TẠ HÒA PHƯƠNG

1. Northeast Bắc Bộ Basin..........................

2. West Bắc Bộ Basin.................................

3. Việt-Laos Basin Group............................

Chapter 4. Devonian-Upper Permian, Wuchiapingian Supersequence        

I. Devonian-Tournaisian Sequence TẠ HÒA PHƯƠNG  

1. East Bắc Bộ Basin..................................

2. West Bắc Bộ Basin.................................

3. Việt-Laos Basin Group............................

4. South Việt Nam Basin Group...................

II. Visean-Upper Permian, Wuchiapin-gian Sequence  ĐOÀN NHẬT TRƯỞNG

1. East Bắc Bộ Basin..................................

2. West Bắc Bộ Basin.................................

3. Việt-Laos Basin Group ..........................

4. S Việt Nam Basin Group ........................

5. W Nam Bộ & Thailand Gulf Basin...........

Chapter 5. Upper Permian, Changhsingian-Middle Jurassic Super-sequence      

I. Changhsingian-Lower Triassic Sequence  

1. Quảng Ninh Basin ĐOÀN NHẬT TRƯỞNG....

2. An Châu Basin ĐẶNG TRẦN HUYÊN .........

3. Sông Hiến Basin ĐẶNG TRẦN HUYÊN .......

4. Nông Sơn Basin ĐOÀN NHẬT TRƯỞNG........

5. Đà Lạt Basin PHẠM ĐỨC LƯƠNG ............

6. Đồng Nai Basin VŨ KHÚC ......................

7. Thailand Gulf Basin ĐOÀN NHẬT TRƯỞNG

II. Changhsingian-Lower Ladinian Sequence           

1. Sông Đà-Tú Lệ Basin VŨ KHÚC .............

III. Anisian-Carnian Sequence ................

1. Quảng Ninh Basin ĐẶNG TRẦN HUYÊN .....

2. An Châu Basin ĐẶNG TRẦN HUYÊN .........

3. Sông Hiến Basin ĐẶNG TRẦN HUYÊN...........

4. Sầm Nưa Basin VŨ KHÚC........................

5. Nông Sơn, An Khê & Đà Lạt Basins VŨ KHÚC            

6. Đồng Nai Basin VŨ KHÚC .......................

7. W Nam Bộ & Thailand Gulf Basins VŨ KHÚC 

IV. Upper Ladinian-Carnian Sequence VŨ KHÚC        

1. Sông Đà-Tú Lệ Basin..............................

2. Mường Tè Basin.....................................

V. Norian-Middle Jurassic Sequence

1. Quảng Ninh Basin ĐẶNG TRẦN HUYÊN........

2. An Châu & Sông Hiến Basins ĐẶNG TRẦN HUYÊN       

3. Sông Đà - Tú Lệ & Mường Tè Basins VŨ KHÚC        

4. Sầm Nưa Basin VŨ KHÚC........................

5. Nông Sơn & An Khê Basin VŨ KHÚC.........

6. Đà Lạt & Đồng Nai Basins VŨ KHÚC.........

7. W Nam Bộ & Thailand Gulf Basins VŨ KHÚC

Chapter 6. Upper Jurassic-Quaternary Supersequence      

I. Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous   Sequence..

1. An Châu & Sông Hiến Basins ĐẶNG TRẦN HUYÊN     

2. Sông Đà-Tú Lệ Basin VŨ KHÚC...............

3. Mường Tè Basin VŨ KHÚC......................

4. Sầm Nưa Basin VŨ KHÚC........................

5. Đà Lạt & Đồng Nai Basin VŨ KHÚC........

6. W Nam Bộ & Thailand Gulf Basins VŨ KHÚC

II. Eocene-Middle Miocene Sequence.......

1. Quảng Ninh Basin NGUYỄN ĐỊCH DỸ........

2. Cao-Lạng Basin NGUYỄN ĐỊCH DỸ...........

3. Hồng-Chảy-Lô Basin NGUYỄN ĐỊCH DỸ.....

4. Sông Đà-Tú Lệ Basin NGUYỄN ĐỊCH DỸ....

5. Mường Tè Basin NGUYỄN ĐỊCH DỸ..........

6. Sầm Nưa Basin NGUYỄN ĐỊCH DỸ ...........

7. W Nam Bộ Basin ĐỖ BẠT........................

8. N Bắc Bộ Gulf Basin ĐỖ BẠT...................

9. N Sông Hồng Basin ĐỖ BẠT.....................

10. S Sông Hồng Basin ĐỖ BẠT....................

11. Cửu Long Basin ĐỖ BẠT.........................

12. Nam Côn Sơn Basin ĐỖ BẠT.........................

13. Malaya-Thổ Chu Basin ĐỖ BẠT..............

III. Upper Miocene-Pliocene Sequence..............

1. N Trung Bộ Basins NGUYỄN ĐỊCH DỸ.......

2. Tây Nguyên Basin NGUYỄN ĐỊCH DỸ........

3. Lâm Đồng Basins NGUYỄN ĐỊCH DỸ.........

4. S Trung Bộ Coastal Basin NGUYỄN ĐỊCH DỸ  

5. Đồng Nai Basin NGUYỄN ĐỊCH DỸ............

6. W Nam Bộ Basin NGUYỄN ĐỊCH DỸ.........

7. N Sông Hồng Basin ĐỖ BẠT............................

8. S Sông Hồng Basin ĐỖ BẠT......................

9. Cửu Long Basin ĐỖ BẠT..........................

10. Nam Côn Sơn Basin ĐỖ BẠT..................

11. Malaya-Thổ Chu Basin ĐỖ BẠT..............

Chapter 7. Quaternary Sequence.............

I. Quaternary on the mainland NGÔ QUANG TOÀN      

1. Pleistocene..............................................

2. Holocene................................................

3. Undifferentiated Quaternary.....................

II. Pliocene-Quaternary in the East Sea NGUYỄN BIỂU               

1. Pliocene..................................................

2. Pleistocene..............................................

3. Holocene................................................

Chapter 8. Weathering crust NGUYỄN THÀNH VẠN      

1. Factors creating the weathering crust in Việt Nam      

2. Weathering crust types............................

3. Main stages in the formation of wea-thering crust in Việt Nam

PART III. MAGMATISM............................................

Chapter 1. Meso-Neoarchean igneous formations   

1. Phan Si Pan Subterrane igneous formations TRẦN TRỌNG HÒA               

Chapter 2. Paleoproterozoic-Middle Neoproterozoic igneous formations  

1. Phan Si Pan Subterrane TRẦN TRỌNG HÒA     

2. Igneous rocks in the Kon Tum Terrane TRỊNH VĂN LONG        

Chapter 3. Late Neoproterozoic- Early Paleozoic igneous formations       

1. Intrusions in the north margin of Kon Tum Terrane TRỊNH VĂN LONG  

2. Granitoids in the north margin of Kon Tum Terrane TRỊNH VĂN LONG  

Chapter 4. Early-Middle Paleozoic igneous formations       

I. Ophiolite associations in orogenic structures           

A. Sông Mã Ophiolite association TRẦN TRỌNG HÒA       

B. South Hà Giang Ophiolite association TRẦN TRỌNG HÒA, PHẠM ĐỨC LƯƠNG   

C. Hiệp Đức Ophiolite association TRẦN TRỌNG HÒA      

II. Granitoids in folded structures in Bắc Bộ BÙI MINH TÂM, TRẦN TRỌNG HÒA, TRẦN TUẤN ANH          

III. Granitoids and gabbroids in the Trường Sơn Orogenic Belt BÙI MINH TÂM

Chapter 5. Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic igneous formations       

1. Volcano-plutonic calc-alkaline asso-ciations of the Trường Sơn Orogenic Belt PHẠM ĐỨC LƯƠNG, PHAN THIỆN, TRẦN TRỌNG HÒA, TRẦN TUẤN ANH .....................

2. Ultramafic-mafic layered intrusions TRẦN TRỌNG HÒA            

3. Permian-Triassic aluminous granite complexes TRẦN TRỌNG HÒA           

4. Igneous formations in granulite complexes of the Kon Tum Terrane TRỊNH VĂN LONG  

5. Volcano-plutonic calc-alkaline K-rich associations of the Trường Sơn Orogenic Belt TRẦN TUẤN ANH, PHẠM ĐỨC LƯƠNG..................................................................

6. Permian-Triassic volcano-plutonic associations in the Bắc Bộ intraconti-nental rift systems TRẦN TRỌNG HÒA, TRẦN TUẤN ANH................................................................................

A. Sông Đà-Tú Lệ Rift system.....................

B. Sông Hiến-An Châu Rift system .............

7. Ultramafic-mafic and felsic intrusions in Bắc Bộ intracontinental structures TRẦN TRỌNG HÒA, TRẦN TUẤN ANH, BÙI MINH TÂM ...............................................................................

Chapter 6. Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic igneous formations    

1. Đà Lạt active continental margin late Mesozoic volcano-plutonic associations BÙI MINH TÂM   

2. Late Mesozoic aluminous granite in East Bắc Bộ within-plate structures BÙI MINH TÂM           

3. West Bắc Bộ Cenozoic volcano-plu-tonic and plutonic associations TRẦN TRỌNG HÒA, TRẦN TUẤN ANH, BÙI MINH TÂM  

A. Pu Sam Cáp area ..................................

B. Phan Si Pan Subterrane ..........................

C. Red River Shear zone ............................

4. Cenozoic subalkaline granitoids in the Trường Sơn Orogenic Belt BÙI MINH TÂM, TRẦN TRỌNG HÒA      

5. Late Cenozoic continental diffuse basalt formations NGUYỄN HỮU TÝ   

PART IV. REGIONAL METAMORPHISM             

Chapter 1. Special metamorphic asso-ciations TRẦN NGỌC NAM       

I. Special metamorphic rocks and metamorphic conditions   

1. Special metamorphic rocks ......................

2. Texture of special metamorphic rocks

3. Metamorphic history of special metamorphic rocks     

II. Special metamorphic rocks and geodynamic setting         

1. Ultrahigh pressure metamorphism and boundary of continental collision

2. Metamorphic rocks in the Dãy Núi Con Voi Shear zone          

3. “Indosinian” shear zones .........................

Chapter 2. Main metamorphic stages TRẦN NGỌC NAM        

I. Radioactive isotopic age of metamor-phic rocks     

1. Closing temperature of radioactive isotopic system      

2. Radioactive age of metamorphic rocks ....

II. Main thermo-tectonic stages ................

1. Meso-Neoarchean stage .........................

2. Paleoproterozoic stage ............................

3. Mesoproterozoic stage ............................

4. Neoproterozoic stage ..............................

5. Ordovician-Silurian stage .........................

6. Permian-Triassic stage ............................

7. Cretaceous stage ....................................

8. Cenozoic stage .......................................

PART V. STRUCTURE-TECTONICS                      

Chapter 1. PreCambrian Reworked in Phanerozoic Continental Terranes 

I. Phu Hoạt-Nậm Sư Lư high-grade metamorphic Terrane TRẦN VĂN TRỊ     

1. Phan Si Pan Subterrane ..........................

2. Núi Con Voi Subterrane ..........................

II. Phu Hoạt-Nậm Sư Lư high-grade metamorphic Terrane TRẦN VĂN TRỊ    

1. Bù Khạng Subterrane .............................

2. Nậm Sư Lư Subterrane ...........................

III. Kon Tum high-grade metamorphic Terrane NGUYỄN XUÂN BAO  

1. Kan Nack Subterrane .............................

2. Ngọc Linh Subterrane .............................

3. Nam-Ngãi Subterrane .............................

Chapter 2. Neoproterozoic-Early Mesozoic polyepisodic orogenic system

I. Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic Sino-Vietnamese polyepisodic orogenic subsystem            

1. Early Paleozoic East Bắc Bộ intra-continental orogenic belt TRẦN VĂN TRỊ, TRẦN THANH HẢI    

2. Early Paleozoic West Bắc Bộ intra-continental orogenic belt TRẦN VĂN TRỊ      

II. Middle Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic Indochinese polyepisodic orogenic subsystem   

1. Middle Paleozoic Đà Nẵng-Sê Kông Orogenic Belt NGUYỄN XUÂN BAO, TRẦN VĂN TRỊ            

2. Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic Trường Sơn Orogenic Belt TRẦN VĂN TRỊ, NGUYỄN BÁ MINH    

3. Indosinian Mekong Orogenic Belt NGUYỄN XUÂN BAO, TRẦN VĂN TRỊ  

Chapter 3. Late Paleozoic-Cenozoic intracontinental depressions  

I. Permian-Mesozoic Sông Hiến-An Châu intracontinental rift system TRẦN VĂN TRỊ, TRẦN THANH HẢI           

1. Late Permian-Triassic sedimentary and volcano-plutonic intracontinental rift petrotectonic association   

2. Middle-Late Triassic subcontinental, continental molassic petrotectonic association       

II. Late Permian-Mesozoic Sông Đà- Tú Lệ intracontinental rift system TRẦN VĂN TRỊ, TRẦN TRỌNG HÒA       

1. Late Permian-Late Triassic, Carnian intracontinental rift petrotectonic association        

2. Late Triassic, Norian-Cretaceous subcontinental, continental molassic petrotectonic association

III. Mesozoic Sầm Nưa-Hoành Sơn post-collisional intracontinental rift system NGUYỄN BÁ MINH     

1. Middle Triassic intracontinental rift petrotectonic association   

2. Late Triassic, Norian-Middle Jurassic coal-bearing and red continental molassic petrotectonic association          

3. Late Jurassic post-arc felsic volcano-sedimentary petrotectonic association      

IV. Mesozoic Sông Bung-An Khê post-collisional intracontinental rift system NGUYỄN XUÂN BAO       

1. Middle Triassic post-collisional intra-continental petrotectonic association         

2. Late Triassic-Early Jurassic post-collisional intermontane depression petrotectonic association   

V. Late Mesozoic Đà Lạt active continental margin NGUYỄN XUÂN BAO          

1. Early-Middle Jurassic rifting spreading and passive continental margin petrotectonic association            

2. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous active continental margin back-arc compression of Andes type petrotectonic association ..................................................................

3. Cretaceous active continental margin of antique East Asia type petrotectonic association          

VI. Cenozoic depressions and basins ........

1. Cenozoic depressions on the mainland TRẦN VĂN TRỊ  

2. Offshore Tertiary basins NGÔ THƯỜNG SAN, CÙ MINH HOÀNG

3. East Sea oceanic crust hollow .................

VII. Cenozoic Tây Nguyên diffuse basalt aureole NGUYỄN XUÂN BAO

Chapter 4. The main fault zones .............

I. Fault zones in the Sino-Vietnamese Composite Terrane (Bắc Bộ part)       

1. Fault zones in East Bắc Bộ TRẦN THANH HẢI

2. Fault zones in West Bắc Bộ PHAN TRỌNG TRỊNH, NGUYỄN VĂN VƯỢNG          

II. Fault zones in the Indochina Composite Terrane (Vietnamese part)         

1. Fault zones in North Trung Bộ NGUYỄN VĂN VƯỢNG  

2. Fault zones in Middle and South Trung Bộ NGUYỄN XUÂN BAO, NGUYỄN VĂN VƯỢNG

3. Fault zones in Nam Bộ NGUYỄN XUÂN BAO     

III. Fault zones in the East Sea TRẦN VĂN TRỊ, NGUYỄN VĂN VƯỢNG   

1. Fault zones in the N of East Sea...............

2. Fault zones in the S of East Sea................

Chapter 5. Geohazards and environ-ment MAI TRỌNG NHUẬN          

I. Geohazards............................................

1. Sensitivity to natural hazards in Việt Nam .

2. Main types of geohazards in Việt Nam .....

II. Environmental pollution.......................

1. Natural radioactive pollution ....................

2. Pollution by heavy metals and others.........

III. Activities for minimizing natural hazards and sustainable development  

1. General remarks on the distributive rules and tendency of natural hazards in Việt Nam

2. Activities for minimizing natural hazards....................

Chapter 6. Regional geophysical fields and deep geological structures (Mainland part) NGUYỄN TUẤN PHONG       

I. Regional geophysical fields ...................

1. Airborne magnetic fields..........................

2. Bouguer gravitational anomalies................

3. Radioactive fields....................................

II. Characteristics of deep geological structures according to geophysical data        

1. Morphology and depth of the Moho and Conrad discontinuities

2. Zoning of deep geological structures.........

Chapter 7. Tectonic evolution TRẦN VĂN TRỊ, NGUYỄN XUÂN BAO         

I. Meso-Neoarchean Megacycle................

II. Paleoproterozoic-Middle Neoprote-rozoic Megacycle        

III. Late Neoproterozoic-Silurian Megacycle

1. Late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian cycle    

2. Middle Cambrian-Early Ordovician cycle .

3. Middle Ordovician-Silurian cycle ..............

IV. Devonian-Middle Permian Megacycle.

1. Devonian-Early Carboniferous, Tour-naisian cycle     

2. Carboniferous-Middle Permian cycle........

V. Late Permian-Middle Jurassic Megacycle

1. Late Permian-Middle Triassic cycle .........

2. Late Triassic-Middle Jurassic cycle..........

VI. Late Jurassic-Cenozoic Megacycle

1. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous cycle ...............

2. Paleogene-Miocene cycle .......................

3. Pliocene-Quaternary cycle ......................

Part VI. GEOLOGICAL RESOURCES

Chapter 1. Mineral resources .................

I. Metallic minerals ..................................

1. Iron and ferrous alloy ..............................

1.1. Iron TRẦN TẤT THẮNG ...................................

1.2. Manganese TRẦN VĂN TRỊ ....................

1.3. Chrome TRẦN TẤT THẮNG ....................

1.4. Titanium TRẦN TẤT THẮNG ...................

2. Basic metals TRẦN TẤT THẮNG ................

2.1. Copper ................................................

2.2. Lead-zinc ............................................

2.3. Nickel, cobalt .......................................

2.4. Bauxite ...............................................

2.5. Tin ......................................................

2.6. Bismuth ...............................................

2.7. Wolfram ..............................................

2.8. Molybdenum ........................................

3. Precious and rare metals, rare earths .......

3.1. Gold NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ ........................

3.2. Platinum NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ...................

3.3. Tantale-niobium NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ...........

3.4. Rare earths NGUYỄN QUANG HƯNG.......

II. Non-metallic minerals .........................

1. Precious stones, ruby and sapphire NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ 

2. Industrial minerals ...................................

2.1. Apatite TRẦN VĂN TRỊ ..........................

2.2. Phosphorite TRẦN VĂN TRỊ ....................

2.3. Baryte NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ......................

2.4. Fluorite NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ.....................

2.5. Pyrite NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ.......................

2.6. Serpentine NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ................

2.7. Peat NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ.........................

2.8. Ceramic clay NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ............

2.9. Magnesite NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ.................

2.10. Dolomite NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ.................

2.11. Feldspar NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ..................

2.12. Kaolin NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ.....................

2.13. Pyrophyllite NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ.............

2.14. Quartzite NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ.................

2.15. Glass sand NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ..............

2.16. Disthene, sillimanite NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ.....................

2.17. Fireproof clay NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ..........

2.18. Diatomite NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ................

2.19. Graphite NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ..................

2.20. Talc NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ .......................

2.21. Asbestos NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ.................

2.22. Muscovite NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ...............

2.23. Vermiculite NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ.............

2.24. Bentonite NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ................

2.25. Crystalline quartz NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ......

III. Construction materials NGUYỄN VĂN QUÝ...............

1. Tile and brick clay ......................................................

2. Cement limestone ...............................................

3. Puzzolan ................................................

4. Sand and gravel ......................................

5. Construction limestone ......................................

6. Facing and construction stone...................

7. Laterite ...................................................................

Chapter 2. Energy resources ........................

I. Coal LÊ ĐỖ BÌNH .......................................................

A. Brief outline of coal in Việt Nam ..............

1. Forming periods of coal ...........................

2. Distribution of coal mines ........................

3. Level of geological survey and exploration     

B. Characteristics and resources of coal basins         

1. Quảng Ninh Coal basin ...........................

2. Thái Nguyên-An Châu Coal basin ............

3. Sông Đà Coal basin ................................

4. Red River Coal basin ..............................

5. Nghệ-Tĩnh Coal basin .............................

6. Nông Sơn Coal basin ..............................

7. Cao Bằng-Lạng Sơn Coal band ...............

8. Cửu Long Sedimentary basin....................

9. Nam Côn Sơn Sedimentary basin .............

10. Malaya-Thổ Chu Sedimentary basin .......

C. On the coal mining industry in Việt Nam.............

II. Oil and gas NGÔ THƯỜNG SAN, CÙ MINH HOÀNG     

A. Characteristics of geological development during Tertiary and the formation of petroleum basins           

1. Pre-rift stage ..........................................

2. Rifting stage ...........................................

3. Post-rift stage .........................................

B. Petroleum system ..................................

1. Basement formation ................................

2. Confining formation ................................

3. Reservoir formation ................................

4. Hydrocarbon play forms and trap types ....

C. Resources, reserves and features of petroleum distribution           

1. Distribution of oil reserves .......................

2. Distribution of gas reserves .....................

III. Uranium NGUYỄN QUANG HƯNG, NGUYỄN TUẤN PHONG    

1. Uranium in sandstone ..............................

2. Uranium in vein or near-vein forms...........

3. Uranium in effusives ...............................

4. Uranium in coal ......................................

5. Uranium in Quaternary sediments ............

Chapter 3. Groundwater resources VÕ CÔNG NGHIỆP           

I. Hydrogeological characteristics ............

1. Water-bearing complexes in Quarter-nary loose sediments      

2. Water-bearing complexes in Paleo-Mesozoic carbonate sediments       

3. Water-bearing complexes in Neogene-Quaternary basalts       

II. Groundwater resources .......................

1. Potential reserves ...................................

2. Exploitable reserves ................................

3. Current status of exploitation and use of groundwater

III. Mineral water resources ....................

1. Potentiality of mineral waters ..................

2. Curent status of exploitation and use of mineral waters           

IV. Hydrogeothermal resources.................

1. Potentiality of hydrogeothermal resources.

2. Perspective of use of hydrogeo-thermal resources for energy purposes

Chapter 4. Geological heritages..............

I. Heritages recognized by the Government and International Orga-nizations           

1. Hạ Long Bay World Heritage TRẦN TÂN VĂN

2. Cát Bà Archipelago World Bio-sphere Store area TRẦN TÂN VĂN, TẠ HÒA PHƯƠNG      

3. Phong Nha - Kẻ Bàng World Heritage TẠ HÒA PHƯƠNG        

4. Ba Bể National Park LÊ ĐỨC AN, TRẦN TÂN VĂN        

5. Cúc Phương National Park TRẦN TÂN VĂN ....

6. Pu Luông Natural Preservation area TRẦN TÂN VĂN   

7. Ngọc Sơn-Ngổ Luông Natural Pre-servation area TRẦN TÂN VĂN        

II. Potential heritages in the country ........

1. Geomorphological landscape areas ...........

1.1. Tropical karstic geomorphology landscapes LÊ ĐỨC AN, TRẦN TÂN VĂN, TẠ HÒA PHƯƠNG      

1.2. Eolian geomorphological land-scapes LÊ ĐỨC AN     

1.3. Volcanic geomorphological land-scapes LÊ ĐỨC AN

2. Petrographic landscape areas LÊ ĐỨC AN..

2.1. Effusive petrographic landscapes...........

2.2. Intrusive petrographic landscapes...........

REFERENCES

Appendix. INDEX OF GEOLOGICAL UNITS AND RESOURCES

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